High Performance Die Casting Technology
Die casting uses a Steel Die to produce parts. Molten Metal is heated up and injected into the tool under pressure. The part is allowed to cool, then the mold opens and ejector pins push the part out of the cavity.
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The Process to Manufacture Die Casting written by: suebest Die casting is a type of a manufacturing process of permanent mold which was developed back early in the 1900’s. Manufacture die casting is characterized by the use of large pressure amounts that is used in forcing molten metal through a mold. This results in the formation of metal castings that come with a surface detail that is fine, thin walls and dimensional accuracy. The most typical parts made using the die casting method include toys, tools, machine components, carburetors, motors and housings. The Process ExplainedThe MoldJust like in all types of permanent mold fabricating processes, the first thing to do is to produce the mold itself. This would necessitate the creation of the mold in two halves that would be possible to open and close for the safe taking away of the metal casting. It is mainly machined from steel and also contains the gating system components. There are multi-cavity dies that are used mostly in manufacturing industries in the production of several castings in every cycle. There are also unit dies that combine smaller dies and are also used in manufacturing metal castings in the industry. The mold is usually designed in such a way that it has its mass being far greater than that of the casting itself. The die or mold if maintained well can be able to last cycles that exceed several hundred thousand before they need replacing.
Machines for Die CastingIn the manufacture die casting processes, there is need to having adequate force that would need to be applied in order to hold the two mold halves together. This is especially so when molten metal is being injected. The flow of this molten metal in these pressures would surely create a force that is tremendous and acting to separate the halves of the die during this process. This is why the die casting machines have to be strong and large. They should be designed in such a way that they will be capable of holding the mold together against these forces. In the manufacturing industry, these machines are usually rated with the force within which they are capable of holding the mold while its closed.
Injection of the Molten MetalThe process of die casting usually falls into two categories; the hot chamber die casting and the cold chamber die casting. In the hot chamber die casting, molten metal is usually relied upon to feed the die. The machine’s piston is usually retracted to allow this molten metal to fill inside the gooseneck. The piston that is hydraulic or pneumatic powered forces the metal to enter the die from the gooseneck. This method records fast cycle times as well as the convenience of having the metal melted in the casting machine. It is mostly used for metals that have a low-melting point like tin, zinc and alloys that are lead based.
In the cold chamber die casting method, which is mainly used in instances where the casting alloy cannot be used in the other method above. It is commonly used for aluminum, zinc alloys that have a huge composition of copper, magnesium and aluminum. In this method, the metal is usually melted in a furnace that is separate. A precise amount of this molten metal is then taken to the cold-chamber machine where it is then fed into a shot chamber that is unheated. A mechanical or hydraulic piston is then used to drive this shot into the die. This process is disadvantageous due to the slow cycle time occasioned by the need to transfer the metal that is molten in a different furnace to the cold-chamber.
Basic principles of Die CastingIn the manufacture die casting processes, after the mold is filled with the molten metal pressure is always maintained up until the casting hardens. It is after this that the mold is opened and the casting so formed is removed. There are some ejector pins that are usually built into the mold to assist in removing the metal casting. The mold has its inner surfaces lubricated in most manufacturing operations before each and every cycle. This is usually to help in the cooling down of the dies and also eliminate chances of the metal casting sticking to the mold.
The cycle is repeated again after the casting is removed and the mold surface gets lubricated as well as the clamping together of the die. During the manufacture die casting processes, bolts, shafts, bushings as well as other parts could be inserted into this mold. This is so that the metal casting can form around these parts. This is referred to as insert molding and the parts so inserted become one with the casting.